List of 170 Reviews on Non-thermal Effects of Microwave/Intermediate Frequency EMFs by Martin L. Pall

Among the scientific reviews documenting these various non-thermal health effects are 170 that follow.  Each of these reviews cites at least a dozen primary literature citations showing non-thermal effects, with many citing 100 or more going up to the 3rd reference which cites over 1000 such citations.  It can be seen from this that the primary literature citations supporting the existence of various non-thermal health effects cited in these reviews go into several thousands.  This list is not and is not intended to be a list of all important such reviews.  However it gives some measure of the size of the literature that contradicts the industry contention that there are no non-thermal effects of microwave frequency EMFs.


  1. Osipov YuA, 1965 [Labor hygiene and the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on workers]. Leningrad Meditsina Publishing House, 220 pp.
  2. Pollack H, Healer J. 1967 Review of Information on Hazards to Personnel from High-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation. Institute for Defense Analyses; Research and Engineering Support Division. IDA/HQ 67-6211, Series B, May 1967.
  3. Naval Medical Research Institute Research Report, June 1971. Bibliography of Reported Biological Phenomena (“Effects”) and Clinical Manifestations, Revised, ZR Glaser.
  4. Frey AH. 1971 Biological Function as influenced by low power modulated RF energy. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 19(2): 153-164.
  5. Tolgskaya MS, Gordon ZV. Pathological Effects of Radio Waves, Translated from Russian by B Haigh. Consultants Bureau, New York/London, 146 pages.
  6. WHO Document. 1974 Biologic Effects & Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 October, 1973. http://mistic.heig-vd.ch/taillard/microwave_effects/
  7. Dumanskij, J. D., and Shandala, M. G., 1974. The biologic action and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of super-high and ultrahigh frequencies in densely populated areas. Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation, Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds.
  8. Bawin SM, Kaczmarek LK, Adey WR. 1975 Effects of VMF fields on the central nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sci 247:74-81.
  9. Dwyer, M. J., Leeper, D. B. 1978 A Current Literature Report on the Carcinogenic Properties of Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation. DHEW Publication (NIOSH) 78-134, March 1978.
  10. Bise W. 1978 Low power radio-frequency and microwave effects on human electroencephalogram and behavior. Physiol Chem Phys 10:387-398.
  11. Lerner, E. J. RF radiation: Biological effects. IEEE Spectrum 17(Dec 1980), 51-59.
  12. Leach WL. 1980 Genetic, growth and reproductive effects of microwave radiation. Bull N Y Acad Med 56:249-257.
  13. Cook HJ, Steneck NH, Vander AJ, Kane GL. 1980 Early research on the biological effects of microwave radiation: 1940-1960. Ann Science 37:323-351. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/2223/1/2223.pdf
  14. Adey W. R. 1981 Tissue interactions with nonionizing electromagnetic fields. Rev. 61, 435-514.
  15. Raines, J. K. Electromagnetic Field Interactions with the Human Body: Observed Effects and Theories. Greenbelt, Maryland: National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1981; 116 p.
  16. Marino AA, Morris DH. 1985 Chronic electromagnetic stressors in the environment. A risk factor in human cancer. J environ sci health C3:189-219.
  17. NCRP Report No. 86. 1986 Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. 400 pp. Bethesda MD 20814
  18. Adey WR. 1988 Cell membranes: the electromagnetic environment and cancer promotion. Neurochem Res.13:671-677.
  19. Adey WR. 1990 Joint actions of environmental nonionizing electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion. Environ Health Perspect 86:297-305.
  20. Walleczek, J. Electromagnetic field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling. FASEB J. 6, 3177-3185.
  21. Adey, WR. 1993 Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. J Cell Biochem 51:410-416.
  22. Bolen, S. M. 1994 Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation Biological Effects and safety standards: a review. AD-A282 886, Rome Laboratory, U.S. Air Force Material Command, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York.
  23. Lai H. 1994 Neurological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. In: Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems, Vol. 1, J.C. Lin, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 27-88.
  24. Goldsmith JR. 1995 Epidemiological evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broadcasting and occupational settings. Int J Occup Environ Health 1:47-57.
  25. Goodman EM, Greenebaum B, Marron MT. 1995 Effects of electromagnetic fields on molecules and cells. Int Rev Cytol 158:279-338.
  26. Grigoriev IUG. 1996 Role of modulation in biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Radiats Biol Radioecol 36:659-670.
  27. Lai, H. 1997. Neurological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation relating to wireless communication technology. Paper presented at the IBC-UK Conference: “Mobile Phones – Is There a Health Risk?” http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai1.htm
  28. Adey WR, 1997 Bioeffects of mobile communications fields: possible mechanisms for cumulative dose. In: N Kuster, Q Balzano, JC Lin (Eds), Mobile Communications Safety, New York, Chapman and Hall, pp. 95-131.
  29. Goldsmith JR. 1997 Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects. Env Health Perspect 105(Suppl 6):1579-1587.
  30. Frey, A. H. Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications? Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 101-103.
  31. Lai, H 1998 Neurological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai2.htm.
  32. Hyland GJ. 1998 Non-thermal bioeffects induced by low-intensity microwave frequency microwave irradiation of living systems. Engineering Science Educ J 7(6):261-269.
  33. Ryabi JT. 1998 Clinical effects of electromagnetic fields on fracture healing. Clin Orthop Relat Res 355(Suppl. l): S205–15.
  34. Barnett SB. 1999 Radio-frequency radiation and birth defects: Is there a threat to human health? Cong Anom 39:59-73.
  35. Belyaev IY, Shcheglov VS, Alipov ED, Ushakov VD. 2000 Nonthermal Effects of Extremely High-Frequency Microwaves on Chromatin Conformation in Cells in vitro—Dependence on Physical, Physiological, and Genetic Factors. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 48:2172-2179.
  36. Betskii OV, Devyatkov ND, Kislov VV. 2000 Low intensity millimeter waves in medicine and biology. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;28(1-2):247-268.
  37. Panagopoulos DJ, Messini N, Karabarbounis A, Philippetis AL, Margaritis LH. 2000 Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within “safety levels”alters the physiological function of insects. In: Kostarakis P, Stavroulakis P, Eds., Millenium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Proceedings. Heraklion Crete, Greeces, October 17-20, 2000. Pp. 169-175.
  38. Somosy Z. 2000 Radiation response of cell organelles. Micron 31:165-181
  39. Krewski D, Byus CV, Glickman BW, Lotz WG, Mandeville R, McBride ML, Prato FS, Weaver DF. 2001 Potential health risks of radiofrequency fields from wireless telecommunication devices. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 4: 1-143.
  40. Banik S, Bandyopadhyay S, Ganguly S. 2003 Bioeffects of microwave–a brief review. Bioresour Technol. 2003 Apr;87(2):155-9.
  41. Blank M, Goodman R. 2004 Comment: a biological guide for electromagnetic safety : the stress response. Bioelectromagnetics 25(8):642-646.
  42. Kundi M, Kild K, Hardell L, Mattsson M. 2004 Mobile telephones and cancer – a review of the epidemiological evidence. J Toxicol Env Health, Part B 7:351-384.
  43. Karasek M, Woldanska-Okonska M. 2004 Electromagnetic fields and human endocrine system. 2004 Oct 20;4 Suppl 2:23-28.
  44. Kundi M. 2004 Mobile phone use and cancer. Occup Env Med 61:560-570.
  45. Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Simon BJ. 2004 Treatment of nonunions with electric and elec- tromagnetic fields. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004; 10: 579–593.
  46. Belyaev I. 2005 Non-thermal biological effects of microwaves: current knowledge, further perspective and urgent needs. Electromagn Biol Med 24(3):375-403.
  47. Belyaev I. 2005 Non-thermal biological effects of microwaves. Microwave Rev 11(2):13-29.
  48. Barnes FS, Greenebaum B, (eds.) 2007 Biological and medical aspects of electromagnetic fields. 3rd, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  49. Behari J, Paulraj R. 2007 Biomarkers of induced electromagnetic field and cancer. Indian J Exp Biol 45:77-85.
  50. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Soderqvist F, Mild KH, Morgan LL. 2007 Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: Increased risk associated with use for > or = 10 years. Occup Environ Med 64:626-632.
  51. Bioinitiative Working Group, Cindy Sage and David Carpenter (eds). 2007 Bioinitiative report: A rationale for a biologically-based public exposure standard for electromagnetic fields (ELF and RF). bioinitiative.org
  52. Huss A, Egger M, Hug K, Huwiler-Mu?ntener K, Ro?o?sli M. 2007 Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies. Environ Health Perspect 115:1–4.
  53. Markov 2007 Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy: History, state of the art and future. The Environmentalist 27:465-475.
  54. Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. 2007 Origins and consequences of DNA damage in male germ cells. Reprod Biomed Online 14:727-733.
  55. Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH. 2008 Mobile telephony radiation effectson living organisms. Chapter 3 , pp. 107-149. In AC Harper and RV Buress, Eds. Mobile Telephones, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBM: 978-1-60456-5.
  56. Nittby H, Grafstrom G, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Brun A, Persson BR, Salford, LG. 2008 Radiofrequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field effects on the blood-brain barrier. Electromag Biol Med 2008; 27:103-126.
  57. Hazout A, Menezo Y, Madelenat P, Yazbeck C, Selva J, Cohen-Bacrie P. 2008 [Causes and clinical implications of sperm DNA damages]. [Article in French] Gynecol Obstet Fertil 36:1109-1117.
  58. Hardell, L., Sage, C. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed. Pharmacother. 62, 104-109.
  59. Genuis SJ. 2008 Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation. Public Health 122:113-124.
  60. Johansson O. 2009 Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment. Pathophysiology 16:157-177.
  61. Blackman C. 2009 Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):205-216
  62. Balmori A. 2009 Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife. Pathophysiology 16:191-199.
  63. Davanipour Z, Sobel E. 2009 Long-term exposure to magnetic fields and the risks of Alzheimer’s disease and breast cancer: Further biological research. Pathophysiology 16:149-156.
  64. Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. 2009 Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on the male reproductive system. Reproduct Biol Endocrinol 7:114.
  65. Khurana VG, Teo C, Kundi M, Hardell L, Carlberg M. 2009 Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surg Neurol 72:205-214.
  66. Martin Blank, Reba Goodman. 2009 Electromagnetic fields stress living cells. Pathophysiology 16:71-78.
  67. Phillips JL, Singh NP, Lai H. 2009 Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage. Pathophysiology 16:79-88.
  68. Makker K, Varghese A, Desai NR, Mouradi R, Agarwal A. 2009 Cell phones: modern man’s nemesis? Reprod Biomed Online 18:148-157.
  69. Ruediger HW. 2009 Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology. 16:89-102.
  70. Yakymenko I, Sidorik E. 2010 Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation and mobile telephony devices. Exp Oncol 32:729-736.
  71. Carpenter DO. 2010 Electromagnetic fields and cancer: the cost of doing nothing. Rev Environ Health 25:75-80.
  72. Khurana, V. G., Hardell, L., Everaert, J., Bortkiewicz, A., Carlberg, M., Ahonen, M. 2010 Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 16, 263-267.
  73. Giuliani L, Soffriti M (Eds). 2010 NON-THERMAL EFFECTS AND MECHANISMS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND LIVING MATTER, RAMAZZINI INSTITUTE EUR. J. ONCOL. LIBRARY Volume 5, National Institute for the Study and Control of Cancer and Environmental Diseases “Bernardino Ramazzini” Bologna, Italy 2010, 400 page monograph.
  74. Fragopoulou A, Grigoriev Y, Johansson O, Margaritis LH, Morgan L, Richter E, Sage C. 2010 Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Environ. Health 25, 307-317.
  75. Batista Napotnik T, Reberšek M, Vernier PT, Mali B, Miklav?i? D. 2010 Effects of high voltage nanosecond electric pulses on eukaryotic cells (in vitro): A systematic review. Bioelectrochemistry 110:1-12.
  76. Kang N, Shang XJ, Huang YF. 2010 [Impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction].[Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 16:1027-1030.
  77. Levitt, B. B., Lai, H. Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays. Environ. Rev. 18, 369-395.
  78. Yu Y, Yao K. 2010 Non-thermal cellular effects of low power microwave radiation on the lens and lens epithelial cells. J Int Med Res 38:729-736.
  79. Verschaeve L, Juutilainen J, Lagroye I, et al. 2010 In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of radiofrequency fields. Mut Res/Rev Mut Res 705:252-268.
  80. Yakymenko, I., Sidorik, E., Kyrylenko, S., Chekhun, V. Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Exp. Oncol. 33(2), 62-70.
  81. Kesari KK, Kuman S, Behari J. 2011 Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on reproductive pattern in male Wistar rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 164:546-549.
  82. Yakimenko IL, Sidorik EP, Tsybulin AS. 2011 [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2011 Mar-Apr;83(2):20-28.
  83. Panagopoulos DJ. 2011 Analyzing the health impacts of modern telecommunication microwaves. Chapter 1 in Advances in Biology and Medicine, Vol. 17, Leon V. Berhardt, Ed., Nova Science Publishers.
  84. Schidt-Rohlfing B, Silny J, Gavenis K, et al. 2011 Electromagnetic fields, electric current and bone healing – what is the evidence? Z Orthop Unfall. 149: 265–270.
  85. Chalidis B, Sachinis N, Assiotis A, et al. 2011 Stimulation of bone formation and fracture healing with pulsed electromagnetic fields: biologic responses and clinical implica- tions. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011; 24(1 Suppl. 2): 17020.
  86. Pilla A, Fitzsimmons R, Muehsam D, et al. 2011 Electromagnetic fields as first messenger in biological signaling: application to calmodulin-dependent signaling in tissue repair. Biochim Biophys Acta 1810: 1236–1245.
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  88. La Vignera, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, D’Agata R, Calogero AE. 2012 Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. J Androl 33:350-356.
  89. Zhong C, Zhao TF, Xu ZJ, et al. 2012 Effects of electromagnetic fields on bone regeneration in experimental and clinical studies: a review of the literature. Chin Med J 125: 367–372.
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  92. Troši? I, Pavi?i? I, Marjanovi? AM, Bušljeta I. 2012 Non-thermal biomarkers of exposure to radiofrequency/microwave radiation. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 63 Suppl 1:67-73.
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  94. Havas, M. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system. Rev. Environ. Health. 28(Nov 2013), 75-84.
  95. Herbert, M. R., Sage, C. 2013 Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I. Pathophysiology 20, 191-209.
  96. Herbert, M. R., Sage, C. Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II. Pathophysiology 20, 211-234.
  97. Bhattacharya, R, Roy, R. Impacts of communication towers on avians: A review. IJECT. 4(1): 137- 139. 2013. http://www.iject.org/vol4/spl1/c0046.pdf
  98. Jayasanka SMDH, Asaeda T. 2013 The significance of microwaves in the environment and its effects on plants. Environ Rev 22:220-228.
  99. Kesari KK, Siddiqui MH, Meena R, Verma HN, Kumar S. 2013 Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems. Indian J Exp Biol 51:187-200.
  100. Warnke U, Hensinger P. 2013 Increasing incidence of burnout due to magnetic fields of cell phone networks and other wireless communication technologies. Umwelt Medizin Gesellshaft 26: 31-38.
  101. Panagopoulos, D. J., Johansson, O., Carlo, G. L. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. PloS ONE 8(6): e62663. doi:10:1371
  102. Carpenter DO. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health. 2013;28(4):159-72.
  103. Ledoigt G, Belpomme D. 2013 Cancer induction molecular pathways and HF-EMF irradiation. Adv Biol Chem 3:177-186.
  104. Pall, ML. Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 17:958-965.
  105. Pilla, AA. 2013 Nonthermal electromagnetic fields: from first messenger to therapeutic applications. Biol. Med. 32, 123-136.
  106. Panagopoulos, D. J., Johansson, O., Carlo, G. L. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. PloS ONE 8(6): e62663. doi:10:1371
  107. Halgamuge MN. 2013 Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits. Radiat Prot Dosimetr 154: 405-416
  108. Szmigielski S. 2013 Reaction of the immune system to low-level RF/MW exposures. Sci Total Environ 2013 Jun 1;454-455:393-400.
  109. Cucurachi S, Tamis WLM, Vijver,MG, Peijnenburg WJGM, Bolte. JFB, G.R.de Snoo GR. 2013 A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environ Int 51: 116-140.
  110. Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. 2013 Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Pathophysiology 2013;20(2):85-110.
  111. Davis DL, Kesari S, Soskolne CL, Miller AB, Stein Y. 2013 Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen. Pathophysiology 20:123-129.
  112. Naziroglu M, Yuksel M, Kose SA, Ozkaya MO. 2013 Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males. [review] J Membr Biol 246 (12): 869-875.
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  119. Belyaev, I. Biophysical mechanisms for nonthermal microwave effects. In: Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine, Marko S. Markov, ed, CRC Press, New York, pp 49-67. (Please note: There are probably a dozen other reviews that from this volume that might be included here on non-thermal effects)
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  121. Pall, M. L. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action. Rev. Environ. Health 3, 99-116.
  122. Panagopoulos, D. J., Johansson, O., Carlo, G. L. Real versus simulated mobile phone exposures in experimental studies. BioMed. Res. Int. 2015, article ID 607053, 8 pages.
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