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Interphone Study Design Flaws

10 Eye-Opening Design Flaws That Underestimate Brain Tumor Risk


– Interphone Studies Presentation Download Power Point


The Interphone Study is a 13-country investigation examining if cell phone use causes tumors.  It is substantially funded by the cell phone industry: €3.2 million ($5.1M) in Europe, $1 million in Canada and unknown amounts in Japan, Australia and New Zealand.  


There have been 14 Interphone brain tumor studies published to date.  The overwhelming number of statistically significant findings have shown that use of a cell phone protects the user from a brain tumor.  Such a result stretches credulity.  


There are only two possible explanations:  1) use of a cell phone does protect the user from risk of a brain tumor, or 2) the study design is highly flawed. Asking the question, “What would the study findings be like if there was no risk of brain tumors from cell phone use?” allowed an analytic approach.  Think about testing a coin to see if there is a “risk” towards heads or tails.  Flipping the coin many times, the expectation, if there is no “risk” of heads or tails is that roughly the same number of heads and tails would be found.  Say a coin was tossed 20 times and tails came up 19 times, intuitively you can say the coin has a “risk” of coming up tails (or inversely the coin is protected from coming up heads).  Mathematically the odds that this would occur by chance would be one time in 49,932 for every 20-time coin flipping.   This is the method used to analysis the Interphone Study.  If there is no risk we would expect approximately the same number of increased brain tumor risk findings as decreased risk (protection) findings. The analysis concluded, however, that it is virtually certain that the Interphone Study shows that use of a cell phone protects the user from a brain tumor, or the Interphone Study is flawed.


A close examination of 10 Interphone Study Protocols found 10 design flaws, 9 of which independently result in an underestimation of the risk of brain tumors. This analysis, conducted by L. Lloyd Morgan, BS, was presented in June 2008 to the Bioelectromagnetics Society (see Power Point slides attached). The flaws range from selection bias, where controls who agree to participate are more frequent cell phone users than non-participating controls; considering tumors outside of the radiation plume as ‘exposed’; cell phone use (latency) time too short to expect a tumor diagnosis; defining ‘regular user’ as persons who use a phone at least 1x a week for six months or more, an unrealistic definition of a ‘regular’ user; excluding young adults and children (known to be at the greatest risk from exposure to carcinogens); only considering a few brain tumor types, not others; and excluding brain tumor cases because of death. 


The result of these design flaws is that the Interphone studies published to date find use of a cell phone protects the users from brain tumors. According to Lloyd Morgan, BS, the cell phone industry-funded 13-country Interphone study thus “is not the definitive study it purports to be”, as the design flaws have distorted results beyond reason. The only independent cell phone study, a Swedish team led by Dr. Lennart Hardell, has found a consistent risk of brain tumors from cell phone use. “It would appear the Interphone Protocol assures that no risk could be found,” says Morgan.


Journalists wanting more information about the Interphone study design flaws can contact Lloyd Morgan, BS at [email protected].





High Frequency Transients on Electrical Wiring
A Potential Universal Carcinogen

Pervasive Form of Electromagnetic Pollution Linked to Teachers’ Cancer in Southern California School


In 2003 the teachers at La Quinta, California middle school complained that they had more cancers than would be expected. A consultant for the school district denied that there was a problem. A retrospective study of cancer incidence in the teachers’ cohort in relationship to the school’s electrical environment showed that sixteen school teachers in a cohort of 137 teachers hired in 1988 through 2005 were diagnosed with 18 cancers. The observed to expected (O/E) risk ratio for all cancers was 2.78. Malignant melanoma, thyroid cancer and uterine cancer had increased incidence. Sixty Hertz magnetic fields showed no association with cancer incidence. A new exposure metric, high frequency voltage transients, did show a positive correlation to cancer incidence. A cohort cancer incidence analysis of the teacher population showed a positive trend of increasing cancer risk with increasing cumulative exposure to high frequency voltage transients on the classroom’s electrical wiring measured with a Graham/Stetzer (G/S) meter. These transients can occur anywhere that electric current flows, can cause a number of different cancers, and are increasing in our environment with increasing use of electrical devices which interrupt current flow like compact fluorescent lights, halogen lights and electrical transformers. Those places that have broadband internet transmitted over power lines are also introducing high frequency transients into homes and offices.


This study suggests that to understand the role of the environment in the incidence of cancer we must evaluate the role of high frequency transients being carried on electrical wiring, and appreciate that the high EMF environments in which we are increasingly located may be an as yet undiscovered very important causative factor.


Journalists wishing to pursue this story lead, please read “A New Electromagnetic Exposure Metric: High Frequency Voltage Transients Associated With Increased Cancer Incidence in Teachers in a California School” published in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine (2008) and then contact Samuel Milham, MD, MPH at [email protected] for further detail.





Autism may be Linked to Electromagnetic Radiation Levels In Mother’s Bedroom During Pregnancy

Pilot Study Finds Over 20x Higher Microwave Power Density Levels in Mothers’ Sleeping Locations During Pregnancy


Incidence of autistic babies has increased from 1 in 150 in 2002 to an estimated 1 in 50 babies today. Dr. Dietrich Klinghart, MD, PhD of the Institute of Neurobiology in Seattle recently conducted a pilot study to assess the potential role of electromagnetic frequencies in the dramatic rise in autism and other neurological impairments over the past decade. Various measurements of electromagnetic radiation exposure were assessed in the case of 10 children with neurological impairment, 8 categorized with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Data was obtained for: 


1) Mothers’ Body Voltage in the mothers’ sleeping location during pregnancy;


2) Child’s Body Voltage in current sleeping location; 


3) Microwave Power Density in mothers’ sleeping location during pregnancy (microwatt/square meter); and


4) Child’s Microwave Exposure in current sleeping location. 


Data for mothers with neurologically impaired children were contrasted with similar data for 5 healthy children and their mothers. 


The results were as follows:


Body Voltage Levels:


Median Body Voltage Level in Mom’s Bed During Pregnancy*

                                                                   Value                 Range

Neurologically Impaired Children      1,872 milliVolts              (380-6,040)

Healthy Group                                  224  milliVolts                (12-480)


8.4x Higher Body Voltage Levels in Mom’s with

Neurologically Impaired Children

*Note research shoes whatever the Body Voltage of the Mom, it is even higher in the fetus.



Body Voltage of Child in Current Bed Location

                                                                     Value               Range

Neurologically Impaired Children         1,028  milliVolts         (420-4,900)

Healthy Group                                       120 milliVolts            (0-230)


8.5x Higher Body Voltage in Neurologically Impaired

Child’s Sleeping Location



Microwave Exposure:


Microwave Power Density in Sleeping Location

Neurologically Impaired Children-Mom’s Bed       mw/sq. meter          Range

Exposure In Pregnancy                                               290                 (110-1,710)

Healthy Group                                                             14                      (0-67)


20.7x Higher Microwave Power Density in Mom’s Sleeping

Location In Cases Where Children Were Neurologically Impaired


This pilot data strongly suggests that electromagnetic radiation in the sleeping environment of mothers during pregnancy, as well as electromagnetic radiation in the sleeping environment of children, may be key undiscovered contributing if not causative factors in neurological impairments in children, including autism. Given increasing levels of ambient electromagnetic radiation in modern environments from society’s use of electronic equipment, wireless technologies, such as cell phones and wireless networks, high frequency transients on electric lines, and broadband over power lines (BPL), this association needs immediate further exploration.


Journalists wanting to pursue this story lead can review Dr. Klinghart’s slides from the Crayhorn medical conference in July 2008 (KlinghardtCrayhonBoulderfest08.pdf) and then contact him via his assistant at [email protected].


Philanthropists interested in funding further studies on the connection between autism and other neurological impairments in children, and electromagnetic fields, please contact us  HYPERLINK “mailto:[email protected][email protected] to make arrangements to support worthy research.



Listen to Dr. Deitrich Klinghardt, MD, PhD. on Preconception Medicine



Ambient Microwave Radiation From Wireless Technologies Linked to Higher Residential Electricity Cost

High Frequencies from Neighborhood Cell Phone Antennas Found to Speed Up Utility Meters, Increasing Bills


Might you be paying for electricity you did not use? A couple in upstate New York noticed their electricity bill had almost doubled, even though the rates had not increased and their utility usage had not changed. The utility company said they could not explain what had happened. The couple was aware a cell phone tower had been erected near their home and every time they added new antennas, their electricity bill increased.  


This couple contacted Dr. Magda Havas of Trent University in Canada, who investigated their situation.   Dr. Havas reviewed four years of the couple’s utility bills and discovered the utility bills had increased dramatically when the antennas went online. She measured high levels of microwave radiation in the home as well as dirty electricity, or high frequency transients, on the electrical wiring.  


When RF chokes were placed near the hour-watt meter the cost of monthly bills decreased substantially… almost to pre-tower levels. After installing a $10 choke, this couple saved almost $1000 annually on electricity. 


The explanation is simple.  Mechanical hour-watt meters can give inaccurate readings if frequencies higher than 60 Hz (cycles per second) are present on the wiring.  The utilities know this and they have technology to keep the electrical power operating at a pure 60 Hz.  However, when higher frequencies are loaded onto the line, these frequencies make the hour-watt meters spin faster, giving the appearance that more electricity is being consumed.  These false readings are costing American families hundreds to thousands of dollars each year.


If your electricity bills are increasing without any obvious explanation and if you go on vacation and are using minimal power but your electricity bill is still high you may want to investigate this situation.  You may be paying for power you are not consuming.


This case study suggests that further analysis of electrical utility bills pre- and post-erection of a cell phone tower is warranted in cases where utility bills in homes and offices have increased without explanation.


Credentialed journalists interested in pursuing a story on the impact of ambient RF on utility meter readings may contact Dr. Magda Havas at  HYPERLINK “mailto:[email protected][email protected].





EPA’s Efforts to Issue Exposure Guidelines for Radiofrequency Radiation Suppressed for Years

Guidelines May Have Made Cell Phones Illegal


Like Sisyphys eternally pushing the rock uphill, the Environmental Protection Agency tried to birth human exposure guidelines for radio frequency radiation for 17 years.


First there was opposition from other federal agencies. The FDA didn’t want the exposure limits to apply to microwave ovens or VDTs. A number of agencies didn’t want them to apply to occupational exposures. The FAA didn’t want to have to protect the public from air traffic control and weather radars. The DoD didn’t want military radars to be affected. In 1987, EPA terminated its microwave health effects research program, and in 1988 suspended the development of its exposure guidelines for a third time.


But Senator Joseph Lieberman convened Congressional hearings in 1992, inquiring into an epidemic of testicular cancer in policemen who used traffic radar guns. These hearings resulted in renewed pressure put on EPA by various members of Congress to resume its work. Finally in June 1995 E. Ramona Trovato, Director of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, announced that the guidelines were substantially complete and would be issued “in early 1996.”

This time EPA’s efforts were on a collision course with plans for ubiquitous cell phone service. For the new guidelines stated explicitly that they protected only against shocks and burns and the effects of RF heating and did “not apply to chronic, nonthermal exposure situations.” EPA further announced that it was ready to proceed to Phase 2 of its regulatory process, which would address chronic exposure and non-thermal effects and take an additional two years. Cell phones would have been illegal, but for one circumstance: EPA’s exposure guidelines have never seen the light of day.


For further information on the history of the EPAs attempts to issue exposure guidelines, journalists may contact Arthur Firstenberg, President of the Cellular Phone Task Force at [email protected].





Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Promoted for Energy Efficiency Emit Hazardous Radiofrequency Radiation

Energy Efficient LED Bulbs a Better Health Choice


At the request of the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIRH), Canadian Professor Magda Havas, PhD submitted a report in June 2008 called “Health Concerns Associated With Energy Efficient Lighting and Their Electromagnetic Emissions”.  Dr. Havas, Associate Professor of Environment and Resource Studies at Trent University in Ontario, Canada, concludes, “The energy efficient compact fluorescent lights that are commercially available generate radio frequency radiation and ultraviolet radiation, they contain mercury-a known neurotoxin, and they are making some people ill. Instead of promoting these light bulbs governments around the world should be insisting that manufacturers produce light bulbs that are electromagnetically clean and contain no toxic chemicals…With a growing number of people developing electrohypersensitivity we have a serious emerging and newly identified health risk that is likely to get worse until regulations restricting our exposure to electromagnetic pollutants are enforced. Since everyone uses light bulbs and incandescent bulbs are being phased out this is an area that requires immediate attention.”


Journalists wishing to pursue this story in advance of the phase out of incandescent bulbs can contact Dr. Magda Havas at [email protected].





Pregnant Women Who Use Cell Phone 2-3x Day Associated With Increased Behavioral Problems in Offspring. 

In a study of over 13,000 children, incidence of emotional symptoms, behavioral problems, inattention, hyperactivity and problems with peers increased by 54% with mothers use of cell phones, and by 80% when the children, at the age of seven, used cell phones themselves.


In May 2008, the UCLA School of Public Health announced a first of its kind study that found a possible link between cell phone exposure and behavioral problems in young children, urging additional research. In research conducted with University of Aarhus, Institute of Public Health in Denmark, they found “Children who were exposed to cell phones before and/or after birth tended to have higher prevalence of emotional symptoms, behavioral problems, inattention, hyperactivity and problems with peers.   When looking at the combined use of cell phones during pregnancy and in childhood, children were 80 percent more likely to have behavioral problems compared to children who do not use a cell phone and whose mothers did not use cell phones during pregnancy.  When looking at cell phone use during pregnancy alone and not during childhood, children were 54 percent more likely to have behavioral problems. ” 


For further information see http://www.ph.ucla.edu/pr/newsitem052108.html 





Wi-Max to Blanket America in Microwave Radiation

Millions of Sensitive People May Have Difficulty

In May 2008 USA Today reported Sprint and Clearwire plan to “blanket the USA with Wi-Max, turning the nation into one big hotspot.” Google, Intel, Comcast and Time Warner Cable are reported to be large investors. “The Wi-Max network is expected to reach about half the U.S. population by the end of 2010”, said the report.

While putting high-powered Wi-Max antennas in residential and commercial neighborhoods may be good for consumers in terms of internet speed and access, there is serious and growing concern among scientists about the effects of this 24/7 exposure to microwave radiation. The BioInitiative Report (www.BioInitiative.org), a large review of over 2,000 studies on the known biological effects of electromagnetic radiation shows impacts from RF on the immune function, the neurological system, inflammation, stress proteins, behavioral functioning, etc., at levels of exposure way lower that current FCC exposure guidelines for industry. Based on the existing body of science on the effects of RF radiation, grave concern is thus being now raised by scientists about the planned chronic exposure in the U.S. to these frequencies.


An estimated 10 million people in the U.S., or 3% of the population is already estimated to be electrically sensitive to a degree which significantly impairs their ability to function productively in society, including in the workplace. An additional 100mm people, or 35% of the population, are estimated to be moderately electrically sensitive. These numbers are projected to increase dramatically with ubiquitous exposure to 24/7 high-powered Wi-Max. For the many people who are already electrically sensitive there will be nowhere to avoid the very often debilitating symptoms that occur for them in wi-fi environments.


Please read the attached letter from Dr. Olle Johannson of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden in response to an article by The Economist on electrical hypersensitivity for background on what is happening to people in the Scandinavian countries. Electrosensitivity Letter.


As we learned with cell phones on which there was no pre-market health testing required by government, citizens and the media must question the wisdom of new technologies such as Wi-Max before they are launched widely into society, and not assume our government has evaluated them thoroughly.


Questions the media might be asking about Wi-Max on behalf of citizens of the United States include:


What pre-market health testing has been done on Wi-Max?


What environmental studies have been done on the effects of microwave radiation on animals, such as birds, bee colonies, insects, domestic animals, as well as on nature such as trees? What is government expecting the effects of nationwide Wi-Max to be on nature?


Have members of Congress read the BioInitiative Report (www.bioinitiative.org), including a review of the science on the known biological effects of radiofrequency radiation?


Does Congress understand the science on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the brain? Do they realize microwave radiation impacts fertility and DNA, and effects fetuses, children and teenagers, including potentially leading to significantly increased emotional problems in children whose mothers were exposed to microwave radiation by using cell phones in pregnancy?


Do they understand the potential connection with the illnesses of our times and their costs? Or with productivity and learning?


Do they understand insomnia is one of the firstsymptoms of electrical sensitivity -and that today 65% of Americans already have a sleep disorder? What is expected to happen with sleep disorders in 24/7 Wi-Max exposure?


Have they heard that the National Library of France has recently dismantled wireless, exercising the precautionary principle because of the health concerns? Or that Paris’ library system also dismantled wireless after 40% of their staff became ill? Or that the union chief of a 38,000 teachers union in the U.K. is advocating wi-fi be removed from schools, and that an entire Canadian university has dismantled it?


Have they heard that some other countries are advising no wi-fi in residential neighborhoods?


Have they heard that the European Parliament just recently voted 522 to 16 to exercise greater precaution regarding electromagnetic radiation, calling exposure guidelines ‘obsolete’?


Have they estimated what the effects of this constant, invisible electropolluting background stressor will do to interpersonal relations and the mental health of people of all ages-infants, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly?


Have they contemplated the effects of an increased level of microwave exposure on car accidents? On crime? On demand for social services?

Do they understand that independent scientists believe there is evidence linking microwave radiation to genetic effects, cancer, cellular/molecular effects, electrophysiology changes, behavioral changes, nervous system impairment, blood-brain barrier permeability, calcium efflux, cardiovascular changes, hormonal disruption, immune system changes, metabolic changes, fertility impairment and much more?

Do they realize nationwide roll out of 24/7 Wi-Max may result in social unrest because many will not be able to tolerate it, or that people will be highly disturbed realizing their health challenges may be related?
Is the government planning to create refugee communities for electrically sensitive people who can’t cope in high Wi-Fi Environments? 



For journalists wanting more information on the science showing biological effects from ELF and RF radiation, please see the BioInitiative Report (www.bioinitiative.org) or contact  [email protected]





Dirty Electricity Elevates Blood Sugar Among Electrically Sensitive Diabetics

May Explain Brittle Diabetes


Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine
Dr. Magda Havas, B.Sc., Ph.D. 
Environmental & Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada, K9J 7B8,  [email protected] 


Transient electromagnetic fields (dirty electricity), in the kilohertz range on electrical wiring, may be contributing to elevated blood sugar levels among diabetics and pre-diabetics.  By closely following plasma glucose levels, in four type 1 and type 2 diabetics, we find that they responded directly to the amount of dirty electricity in their environment.  In an electromagnetically clean environment, type 1 diabetics require less insulin and type 2 diabetics have lower levels of plasma glucose.  Dirty electricity, generated by electronic equipment and wireless devices, is ubiquitous in the environment. Exercise on a treadmill, which produces dirty electricity, increases plasma glucose.  These findings may explain why brittle diabetics have difficulty regulating blood sugar.  Based on estimates of people who suffer from symptoms of electrical hypersensitivity (3% to 35%), as many as 5 to 60 million diabetics worldwide may be affected. Exposure to electromagnetic pollution in its various forms may account for higher plasma glucose levels and may contribute to the misdiagnosis of diabetes.  Reducing exposure to electromagnetic pollution by avoidance or with specially designed GS filters may enable some diabetics to better regulate their blood sugar with less medication and borderline or pre-diabetics to remain non-diabetic longer. 





Doubled Mortality, Impaired Memory and Death By Tumors in LongTerm EMF Study

Pulsed Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure in Rats Shows Grim Outcomes


Dirk Adang, a researcher at Catholic University in Louvan, Belguim, presented a PhD study on the effects of long?term exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields in rats. Over 18 months (equivalent to 60 years for a human) it showed a doubled mortality rate, effects on the immune system, impaired memory and tumors. Until now, most RF studies have only looked at short?term effects. The subjects showed significantly higher white blood cell counts, with some increases not appearing until 11?18 months of exposure, suggesting an noteworthy delayed response, a significant loss of memory after 15 months of radiation exposure, where they didn’t recognize objects to which they had been previously exposed many times, and on autopsy the cause of death in the exposed rats was due to tumors in 16 out of 17 cases. These troubling effects occurred at a radiation level considered ‘safe’ today. (Ref. Le Soir, June 24, 2008)




Hybrid Autos Not the EMF Concern Some Think

Hybrids Safer Than Many Think


There is confusion about the potential EMF danger from hybrid automobiles. After a NY Times article appeared on this topic, environmental consultant Stan Hartman of Boulder prepared the attached analysis of a Toyota Prius. In it he explains the shortcoming of the Trifield Meter in measuring magnetic fields in high radiofrequency environments, which has lead many to believe the magnetic fields are higher than they actually are, as in the NY Times article. Read Stan’s report to learn how best to protect oneself, and especially children, from the fields that do exist. Download PDF Here.





Broadband Over Power Lines Coming to Rural America

Brings Radiation Onto Electrical Wiring


IBM (NYSE: IBM) announced in November 2008 has struck a deal with International Broadband Electric Communications to deploy Broadband Over Powerline technology (BPL) to electrical cooperatives that supply electricity to much of rural America. In the name of internet access and closing the ‘digital divide’, this controversial technology will use the existing electrical wiring in homes, offices and neighborhoods to carry potentially very dangerous radiofrequency radiation. For those who are electrically sensitive, retreating to rural areas to function productively will now no longer be an option. The Milham study should be read to understand the potential impact of chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields (“A New Electromagnetic Exposure Metric: High Frequency Voltage Transients Associated With Increased Cancer Incidence in Teachers in a California School” published in 2008 in the American Journal of Industrial Medicine). Further commentary on Broadband Over Powerline Technology by scientists can be found in the E?book “Public Health SOS: The Shadow Side of the Wireless Revolution” found on this site.





Health Concerns Over “White Space” Use in Broadcast Spectrum

Call for PreMarket Health Testing of Any New Applications


The FCC voted in November 2008 to open up vacant broadcast spectrum space between the broadcast TV stations for unlicensed use. Compared to Wi?Fi, the frequencies would be able to travel farther, and through walls. While use of these parts of the spectrun is reported to potentially bring cost efficiencies, there is concern it will interfere with current wireless technologies, including television broadcasters, performing artists, professional sports leagues, wireless microphones, wireless equipment in hospitals, including critical care equipment, and personal wireless technologies such as defibrillators and deep brain stimulation systems. Also, white space frequencies have been reported to be associated with cancer and neurological diseases in AM, FM and television broadcast studies. On November 3, Representative Dennis Kucinich, Chairman of the Domestic Policy Subcommittee, sent a letter asking FCC Chairman Kevin Martin to consider the potential health effect (http://domesticpolicy.oversight.house.gov/story.asp?ID=2269).
Industry must be held accountable for carelessness in introducing technologies that could be harmful or disruptive. Contact your Congress person to inquire about what premarket health testing will be required for technologies going forward that will use the ‘white space’.

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